Identification of autism subtypes based on wavelet coherence of BOLD FMRI signals using convolutional neural network

Al-Hiyali, M.I. and Yahya, N. and Faye, I. and Hussein, A.F. (2021) Identification of autism subtypes based on wavelet coherence of BOLD FMRI signals using convolutional neural network. Sensors, 21 (16).

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The functional connectivity (FC) patterns of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) play an essential role in the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) classification models. There are available methods in literature that have used FC patterns as inputs for binary classification models, but the results barely reach an accuracy of 80. Additionally, the generalizability across multiple sites of the models has not been investigated. Due to the lack of ASD subtypes identification model, the multi-class classification is proposed in the present study. This study aims to develop automated identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subtypes using convolutional neural networks (CNN) using dynamic FC as its inputs. The rs-fMRI dataset used in this study consists of 144 individuals from 8 independent sites, labeled based on three ASD subtypes, namely autistic disorder (ASD), Asperger�s disorder (APD), and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals from 116 brain nodes of automated anatomical labeling (AAL) atlas are used, where the top-ranked node is determined based on one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the power spectral density (PSD) values. Based on the statistical analysis of the PSD values of 3-level ASD and normal control (NC), putamenR is obtained as the top-ranked node and used for the wavelet coherence computation. With good resolution in time and frequency domain, scalograms of wavelet coherence between the top-ranked node and the rest of the nodes are used as dynamic FC feature input to the convolutional neural networks (CNN). The dynamic FC patterns of wavelet coherence scalogram represent phase synchronization between the pairs of BOLD signals. Classification algorithms are developed using CNN and the wavelet coherence scalograms for binary and multi-class identification were trained and tested using cross-validation and leave-one-out techniques. Results of binary classification (ASD vs. NC) and multi-class classification (ASD vs. APD vs. PDD-NOS vs. NC) yielded, respectively, 89.8 accuracy and 82.1 macro-average accuracy, respectively. Findings from this study have illustrated the good potential of wavelet coherence technique in representing dynamic FC between brain nodes and open possibilities for its application in computer aided diagnosis of other neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression or schizophrenia. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Item Type:Article
Impact Factor:cited By 0
Uncontrolled Keywords:Classification (of information); Classifiers; Computer aided diagnosis; Convolution; Convolutional neural networks; Diseases; Frequency domain analysis; Learning systems; Magnetic resonance imaging; Power spectral density; Signal systems; Spectral density, Autism spectrum disorders; Blood oxygen level dependents; Multi-class classification; Neuropsychiatric disorder; Pervasive developmental disorders; Power spectral densities (PSD); Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging; Time and frequency domains, Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
ID Code:23778
Deposited By: Ms Sharifah Fahimah Saiyed Yeop
Deposited On:19 Aug 2021 13:10
Last Modified:19 Aug 2021 13:10

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