GIS-based non-point sources pollution simulation in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

Malakahmad, A. and Eisakhani, M. and Abdullah, M.P. and Karim, O. and Kutty, S.R.M. and Isa, M.H. (2009) GIS-based non-point sources pollution simulation in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. In: Regional Conference on Environmental & Earth Resources (RCER ’09) - Conservation & Sustainability, Faculty of Civil Engineering & Earth Resources, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia, December, 2009, Pahang, Malaysia.

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Cameron Highlands is a mountainous area subjected to torrential tropical showers. It extracts 5.8 million liters of water per day for drinking supply from its rivers at several intake points. The water quality of rivers in Cameron Highlands, however, has deteriorated significantly due to land clearing for agriculture, excessive usage of pesticides and fertilizers as well as construction activities in rapidly developing urban areas. On the other hand, these pollution sources known as non-point pollution sources are diverse and hard to identify and therefore they are difficult to estimate. Hence, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) was used to provide an extensive approach to evaluate land use and other mapping characteristics to explain the spatial distribution of non-point sources of contamination in Cameron Highlands. The method to assess pollution sources has been developed by using Cameron Highlands Master Plan (2006-2010) for integrating GIS, databases, as well as pollution loads in the area of study. The results show highest annual runoff is created by forest, 3.56 × 108 m3/yr followed by urban development, 1.46 × 108 m3/yr. Furthermore, urban development causes highest BOD load (1.31 × 106 kgBOD/yr) while agricultural activities and forest contribute the highest annual loads for phosphorus (6.91 × 104 kgP/yr) and nitrogen (2.50 × 105 kgN/yr), respectively. Therefore, best management practices (BMPs) are suggested to be applied to reduce pollution level in the area.

Item Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Cameron Highlands, land use, non-point sources of pollution
Subjects:T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Departments / MOR / COE:Departments > Civil Engineering
ID Code:1637
Deposited By: Assoc Prof Dr Mohamed Hasnain Isa
Deposited On:26 Apr 2010 07:20
Last Modified:19 Jan 2017 08:25

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