Study on the baseline data of solid waste management in the Holy City of Makkah during Haj 1427

Aziz, H.A. and Isa, M.H. and Kadir, O.A. and Nordin, N.M. and Daud, W.R.W. and Alsebaei, A.F. and Rizaiza, A.S.A. (2007) Study on the baseline data of solid waste management in the Holy City of Makkah during Haj 1427. In: National Seminar on Hajj Best Practices through Advances in Science & Technology, Centre for Education, Training and Research in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (CETREE), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, May, 2007, Penang, Malaysia.

[img] PDF - Submitted Version
Restricted to Registered users only



Management of solid waste in crowded conditions, especially during Haj and Ramadhan is a challenging task to the Makkan authorities. Millions of Muslims converge to limited spaces at Al-Haram and Al-Masha’ir (Mina, Muzdalifa and Arafat) to perform the religious rituals. The peak occurs between the 8th and 13th Zulhijjah, creating huge amounts of waste within a short period of time. Effective storage, collection, transportation and disposal of waste become very important in order not to hinder or pose problems to the pilgrims while performing ibadah (worship). A team of USM researchers, in collaboration with Umm Al-Qura University, made a technical field visit to Makkah during Haj 1427, covering the period between 20th Zulqaedah and 24th Zulhijjah, 1427. The main aim of the visit was to conduct an initial study to establish baseline information on solid waste management in Makkah during Haj period. Areas of concern were Al Masjid Al Haram, its surroundings and Al Masha’ir (Mina, Muzdalifah and Arafat). Data on waste quantity was made available by the local waste management company. Per capita waste generation rate was calculated for pilgrims and for local people. Waste composition study was conducted on-site and the results were compared with the published data. Present practices of solid waste and slaughterhouse waste management (storage, collection, transportation, disposal and recycling) were observed followed by discussions with various authorities. The results indicated that the per capita waste generation rate for pilgrims and local people in the Hijrah year 1426 was 1.55 kg per day and 1.69 kg/day, respectively. The amount of waste received at the landfill increased from 1800-2000 per day in normal days to 3000 ton/day during Ramadhan and 4500 ton/day during Haj, 1426. The waste mainly consisted of organics, plastics and paper and boxes. The findings also indicated ample room for further improvement in solid waste and slaughterhouse waste management, especially on the waste collection and recycling facilities. Some of the options are discussed in the paper.

Item Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Uncontrolled Keywords:solid waste, management, composition, slaughterhouse waste, Haj, Makkah
Subjects:T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Departments / MOR / COE:Departments > Civil Engineering
ID Code:1540
Deposited By: Assoc Prof Dr Mohamed Hasnain Isa
Deposited On:23 Apr 2010 02:19
Last Modified:19 Jan 2017 08:26

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Document Downloads

More statistics for this item...